Joshua6 Elder (James5, Joseph4, William3, Peter2, Peter1) was born about 1795 in Virginia, probably in Charlotte or Campbell County, to parents James and Polly Elder. He moved to Rutherford County, Tennessee, with his family about 1814, and married Lydia Etter there in 1824. Based on Census and Probate records, they had at least twelve children. Lydia Elder died in 1870 and Joshua Elder died in 1885 both in Rutherford County, Tennessee.
These are the principal records for Joshua6 and Lydia Elder:
- Joshua Elder and Lydia Etter married in Rutherford County, Tennessee; license dated 29 Jan
1824; surety Hezekiah House; solemnized by Peyton Smith [Tennessee, Rutherford County Marriage Record, Volume 1,
1804-1837, page 49] [license]
- Joshua Elder, administrator, presented an inventory of the estate of James Elder, deceased,
in Rutherford County, Tennessee, dated 18 Oct 1824 and recorded 6 Nov 1824 [Wills, Inventories and Settlements of Rutherford County, Tennessee,
Volume 16, page 67] [record |
- Joshua Elder, indebted to sundry persons, borrowed $75 from Levi Wade, and conveyed in trust
two fillies, three cows, two calves and twenty hogs; money to be repaid with interest before 25 Jan 1835, or Wade could sell all; 16
Mar 1835 [Rutherford County, Tennessee, Deed Book U, page 376; LDS microfilm number 0377687]
- Thomas Mullins (executor of Joel Mullins) and John Mullins sold land to
Joshua Elder, on Stewarts Creek adjoining John Walden, John Ridley, John Mullins;
Elder living on land by agreement with Joel Mullins; dated 8 Jan 1838 and recorded 15 Jan 1839 [Rutherford County,
Tennessee, Deed Book W, page 526; LDS microfilm number 0377687]
- Joshua Elder appeared as Head of Family in each U.S. Census of Population for Rutherford County, Tennessee,
from 1830 to 1880 [records]:
1830 Census Under 5 5- 9 10- 14 15- 19 20- 29 30- 39 40- 49 50- 59 60- 69 Males 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Females 2 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Number of slaves = 1
1840 Population Census [1840 Census of United States, Rutherford County, Tennessee, Microfilm series M704, Roll 533, page 62]
1840 Census Under 5 5- 9 10- 14 15- 19 20- 29 30- 39 40- 49 50- 59 60- 69 Males 2 2 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 Females 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0
Number of slaves = 0
Names Age Sex Occupation Value -
Birthplace Joshua Elder 55 M Farmer 1100 VA Lydia J. Elder 52 F NC Mary E. Elder 24 F TN Wm. Elder 22 M Farmer TN Edmund Elder 21 M Farmer TN Jane Elder 16 F TN Henry Elder 17 M Farming TN Jas. Elder 15 M TN Benja Elder 13 M TN Levi Elder 11 M TN Eliza Elder 9 F TN Geo. Elder 7 M TN Jno. Elder 4 M TN
Number of slaves = 7 (from 1850 slave schedule)
1860 Population Census [1860 Census of United States, Rutherford County, Tennessee, Civil District 6, Jefferson Post Office; enumeration date 22 Jul 1860, Microfilm series M653, Roll 1271, page 76]
Names Age Sex Occupation Value -
Birthplace Joshua Elder 65 M Farmer 36000 22000 VA L. Elder 63 F VA M. Elder 36 F TN B. Elder 24 M Overseer 125 TN A. Elder 20 F TN G. Elder 19 M Laborer TN Jno. Elder 14 M TN D. Pope 55 F 7000 VA
Number of slaves = 22 (from 1860 slave schedule)
1870 Population Census [1870 Census of United States, Rutherford County, Tennessee, Civil District 6, Florence Post Office, enumeration date 16 Aug 1870, Microfilm series M593, Roll 1557, page 7]
Names Age Sex Color Occupation Value -
Birthplace Elder, Joshua 76 M W Farmer 14000 1000 TN Elder, Mary 46 F W Keeping House TN Traler, Harriet 45 F B Servant TN Name Age Sex Relationship
Occupation Birthplace -
Elder, Joshua 85 M Farmer VA VA VA Trigg, Lucy 50 F dau Keeping House TN VA VA White, Tennessee V. 18 F gdau At home TN TN TN Trigg, Clauda P. 11 F gdau At home TN TN TN Elder, Mary 56 F dau At home TN VA VA
- Joshua Elder appeared in each Census of Agriculture for Rutherford County, Tennessee, from 1850 to 1880:
1850 Agriculture Census
Acres of land: 37 improved; 12 unimproved
Cash value of farm: $1100
Value of farm implements: $40
Livestock: horses-7; mules-5; milch cows-5; oxen-4; other cattle-6; sheep-22; swine-35 (year ending 1 Jun 1850)
Value of livestock: $909
Produce: Indian corn-750 bu.; oats-50 bu.; ginned cotton-14 bales (400 lbs each); wool-60 lb.; Irish potato-10 bu.; sweet potato-75 bu.; butter-250 lb.
Value of homemade manufactures: $25
Value of animals slaughtered: $190
Enumeration date: 21 Sep 1850
[Non-population Census Schedule, 1850-1880, 1850-Agriculture, Montgomery-Smith Counties, Microfilm series T1135, Box 4, Roll 18, Rutherford County, Jefferson District, page 477]
1860 Agriculture Census [J. E. (Joshua?) Elder]
Acres of land: 200 improved; 210 unimproved
Cash value of farm: $24,000
Value of farm implements: $400
Livestock: horses-36; mules-6; milch cows-13; oxen-8; other cattle-30; sheep-70; swine-100 (year ending 1 Jun 1860)
Value of livestock: $4300
Produce: wheat-104 bu.; Indian corn-2500 bu.; ginned cotton-59 bales (400 lbs each); wool-1330 lb.; peas & beans-30 bu.; Irish potato-100 bu.; sweet potato-200 bu.; butter-1000 lb.
Value of homemade manufactures: $200
Value of animals slaughtered: $500
Enumeration date: 16 Jul 1860
[Non-population Census Schedule, 1850-1880, 1860-Agriculture, Microfilm series T1135, Roll 58, Rutherford County, Civil District 6, Post Office Jefferson]
1870 Agriculture Census
Acres of land: 175 improved; 100 unimproved
Cash value of farm: $14,000
Value of farm implements: $10
Livestock: horses-1; mules-5; milch cows-5; oxen-2; other cattle-5; sheep-5; swine-10 (year ending 1 Jun 1870)
Value of livestock: $875
Produce: Indian corn-200 bu.; cotton-2 bales (450 lbs each)
Value of all farm products: $700
Enumeration date: ?
[Non-population Census Schedule, 1850-1880, 1870-Agriculture, Microfilm series T1135, Roll 24, Rutherford County, Civil District 6, Post Office Florence]
1880 Agriculture Census
Acres of land: 75 improved; 50 unimproved
Farm value: land and buildings-$3000; implements-$20; livestock-$150; fences-$25
Value of farm production: $700
Cattle: milch cows-3; other cattle-1; calf-1 (1 sold alive)
Poultry: barnyard-25; other-18
Eggs: 200 doz.
Cereals: Indian corn-60 acres (1250 bu.)
Fiber: cotton-9 acres (4 bales)
Forest products: cords of wood-10 (value $15)
Enumeration date: 11 Jun 1880
[Non-population Census Schedule, 1850-1880, 1880-Agriculture, Microfilm series T1135, Roll 115, Rutherford County, Civil District 6, page 7]
- The estate of John Etter was divided equally among his surviving children Lydia J. Elder,
Elizabeth Smith, Lucy E. Walden and Dorothy Pope, and heirs of his deceased daughter
Nancy Boring (who split her share); Lydia’s share was 134 acres and 6 slaves; recorded 9 Apr 1853 [Rutherford County,
Tennessee, Record Books, 1851-1856, Book 16, pages 359-363, LDS microfilm number 0380491]
- Lydia J. Elder, wife of Joshua Elder, sold 137 acres and 101 poles of land to
James J. Ward for $8946.33 on 16 Dec 1868 [Rutherford County, Tennessee, Deeds, 1867-70, Book 16, page 144, LDS microfilm number 0377696]
- Lydia J. Elder, wife of Joshua Elder, paid debts totaling $7826.29 to
S. H. Miller resulting from multiple judgments against Joshua Elder and others, using money from the sale of her own
real estate, dated 1 Feb 1869; which payment cleared the title of Joshua Elder land and gave ownership to Lydia J. Elder
[Rutherford County, Tennessee, Deeds, 1867-70, Book 16, pages 234-238, LDS microfilm number 0377696]
- Joshua Elder and wife Lydia J. Elder contracted a deed of trust with
Henry Gregory, trustee, dated 4 Aug 1869 and recorded 13 Sep 1869: putting about 270 acres in trust for use of Joshua
and Lydia Elder until they died, then to be divided equally among their surviving children and a share to be split among offspring of
each deceased child [Rutherford County, Tennessee, Deeds, 1867-70, Book 16, pages 488-490, LDS microfilm number 0377696]
[record | abstract]
- "LIDDIE J. ELDER w/o J. W. Elder, Rutherford Co., Tenn., d April 16, 1870; born
Brunswick Co., Va., Feb. 14, 1798; in 1814 moved with parents to Tenn. where she md January 14 (sic-actually 24), 1824." [Nashville Christian Advocate,
Volume 30, #17. April 30, 1870, page 33; see Abstracts from Methodist Publications: http://www.tngenweb.org/records/tn_wide/obits/nca/nca3-05.htm]
- R. C. Blackman applied for letters of administration on the estate of Lydia J. Elder,
deceased, and having given bond with J. B. Collier and John E. Elder for $1500, was granted them on 2 Jan 1871
[Rutherford County, Tennessee, Minutes, 1868-1874, Book FF, page 506, LDS microfilm number 0379629]
- Joshua Elder was taxed on 260 acres in Civil District 6 of Rutherford County from 1881 to 1885 (1882 missing)
[Rutherford County, Tennessee, Tax Records, LDS microfilm numbers 0431397 and 0431398]
- Heirs of Lydia and Joshua Elder deceased sold shares in Lydia Elder trust land in Rutherford County beginning in 1885: Edmund Elder sold his 1/11 share to B. L. Ridley, registered 31 Aug 1885 [D.B. 28, page 81] [record]
Click on a link to see an abstract or copy of the record.
What can one learn from these records?
Joshua Elder probably was born in 1794 or 1795 based on ages given in 1850-1880 Census records. Judging from Personal Property Tax lists, his parents James and Polly Elder resided in Campbell or Charlotte County, Virginia, during this period.
Joshua Elder's parents probably were James5 and Polly Elder.
Joshua Elder and Lydia Etter married in Rutherford County, Tennessee, in 1824 (record 1).
One researcher says that this was Lydia's second marriage, but I've found no supporting record. In fact, Lydia's father's name was Etter (record 7), and her name at the time of her marriage to Joshua Elder was Etter. Her obituary doesn't mention a prior marriage (record 11).
Mary E. Elder
William King Elder
Edmund E. Elder
Emily Jane Elder
Henry M. Elder
James Stirling Elder
Benjamin A. Elder
Levi W. Elder
Elizabeth Ann Elder
John E. Elder
There may have been another child who died young: three girls under 10 were reported in the 1830 Census, but only Mary and Lucy have been identified.
Additional notes on the children of Joshua and Lydia Elder are given here.
Joshua Elder lived in Campbell and Charlotte counties in Virginia, then moved to Rutherford County, Tennessee. See notes for his father James Elder here.
Lydia Etter Elder died 16 Apr 1870 in Rutherford County, Tennessee (record 11).
Joshua Elder lived his whole adult life in Rutherford County, Tennessee. He was involved in numerous deed-book transactions. Here’s a list [Rutherford County, Tennessee, Index to Deeds & Mortgages, 1804-1890, Microfilm reel 103, Tennessee State Library and Archives]:
|Parties to Deed||Book||Page|
|Joshua Elder to Levi Wade #3||U||376|
|Thomas & John Mullins to Joshua Elder #4||W||526|
|Joshua Elder to Silas Tucker||X||547|
|Joshua Elder to Jackson Smith||2||189|
|G. W. Gibbs to Joshua Elder||2||220|
|Joshua Elder to M. H. Leath||2||221|
|M. H. Leath to Joshua Elder||2||222|
|Nicholas G. Ward to Joshua Elder||4||692|
|J. W. Gooch admin. to Joshua Elder||5||14|
|Joshua Elder to David D. Newgent||5||28|
|George Freeman & wife to Joshua Elder||5||223|
|Francis Tune & wife to Joshua Elder||5||284|
|F. M. Mullins to Joshua Elder||5||502|
|John H. Lee and wife to Joshua Elder||7||367|
|Joshua Elder to A. G. Henderson||8||177|
|Peter Bucheart & wife to Joshua Elder||8||178|
|Stephen Rutherford to Joshua Elder||9||347|
|Isaac P. Griffin to Joshua Elder||9||372|
|Joshua Elder to L. W. & E. E. Elder||13||183|
|Joshua Elder & wife to A. G. Henderson||14||224|
|Joshua Elder & wife to James J. Ward||16||144|
|J. S. Webb sheriff & S. H. Miller to Lydia J. Elder||16||234|
|Joshua Elder & wife to Henry Gregory trustee #8||16||488|
|E. Elder to B. L. Ridley #14||28||81|
At least one of these is a mortgage of personal property (record 3). I haven't investigated them all.
[to be added]
Other Elders lived in Rutherford County, Tennessee, around the time that Joshua Elder and family moved there. Those people were discussed in notes for his father James Elder.
Here are some who lived later on in Rutherford County:
- The wife and children of Elias Elder remained in Rutherford County ...
- George W. Elder married Amanda Richardson 3 Sep 1865. This was an African-American couple (1870 Census).
Joshua Elder lived a long life. He lived under Presidents from George Washington (1) to Grover Cleveland (22).
The most traumatic public occurrence of his life was the American Civil War. The Battles of Murfreesboro, Stones River and Nashville were fought not far from where he and his family lived. At least two sons fought for the Confederate army, and son George died of a wound suffered at the Battle of Chickamauga.
The State of Tennessee was divided over the war. It was the second most populous state in the South and furnished more soldiers for the Confederacy than any other state except Virginia. But Tennessee also furnished more men for the Union cause than all the other Southern states put together.
[to be added]